Main Article Content
Psychological capital (PsyCap) is a state-like concept with roots in positive psychology. This study investigated the potential role of PsyCap, as a personal resource, in increasing the level of employees’ health (mental and physical) and performance. Based on the Job Demand-Resources theory, the mediating effect of burnout was examined using self-report data. The models were tested on 304 Romanian employees (51% women) from Information Technology & Communications (IT&C) companies, using structural equation modeling. The analysis found that burnout partially mediates the relationship between PsyCap and health (mental and physical) as well as the relationship between PsyCap and performance (task and contextual). The results highlight the role of PsyCap, as a personal resource, in health, and performance. These results are useful for implementing an evidence-based intervention to improve the level of PsyCap in IT&C employees. An improvement in PsyCap would reduce burnout and enhance well-being and performance. This study highlights the mediating role of burnout in the relationship between psychological capital and two distinct outcomes: health and performance. Thus, this research helps identify further mediators of the relation between PsyCap and health and performance.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal,it also allows for use of the work for non-commercial purposes and if others remix, transform or build upon the works found in this journal they must distribute the contributions under the same licence as the original.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See: The Effect of Open Access).
Ahola, K. (2007). Occupational burnout and health. Helsinki: Finnish Institute Occupational Health.
Avey, J. B., Hughes, L. W., Norman, S. M., & Luthans, K. W. (2008). Using positivity, transformational leadership, and empowerment to combat employee negativity. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 29, 110-126. https://doi.org/10.1108/01437730810852470
Avey, J. B., Luthans, F., Smith, R. M., & Palmer, N. F. (2010). Impact of positive psychological capital on employee well-being over time. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15, 17-28. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016998
Avey, J. B., Luthans, F., & Youssef, C. M. (2010). The additive value of positive psychological capital in predicting work attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Management, 36, 430-452. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206308329961
Avey, J. B., Nimnicht, J. L., & Graber Pigeon, N. (2010c). Two field studies examining the association between positive psychological capital and employee performance. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 31, 384-401. doi: https://doi.org/10.1108/01437731011056425
Avey, J. B., Reichard, R. J., Luthans, F., & Mhatre, K. H. (2011). Meta-analysis of the impact of positive psychological capital on employee attitudes, behaviors, and performance. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 22, 127–152. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrdq.20070
Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2017). Job demands–resources theory: taking stock and looking forward. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 22, 273-285.
Bakker, A.B. & Oerlemans, W. (2011). Subjective well‐being in organizations. In Cameron, K.S. and Spreitzer, G.M. (Eds), The Oxford Handbook of Positive Organizational Scholarship (pp. 178‐89), New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Bakker, A. B., Emmerik, H. V., & Euwema, M. C. (2006). Crossover of burnout and engagement in work teams. Work and Occupations, 33, 464-489. https://doi.org/10.1177/0730888406291310
Beecham, S., Baddoo, N., Hall, T., Robinson, H. & Sharp, H. (2008). Motivation in software engineering: a systematic literature review. Information and Software Technology, 50, 860-878. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infsof.2007.09.004
Berwick, D. M., Murphy, J. M., Goldman, P. A., Ware Jr, J. E., Barsky, A. J., & Weinstein, M. C. (1991). Performance of a five-item mental health screening test. Medical Care, 29, 169-176. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005650-199102000-00008
Boey, K. W. (1999). Distressed and stress resistant nurses. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 20, 33-54. https://doi.org/10.1080/016128499248772
Borman, W. C., & Motowidlo, S. M. (1993). Expanding the criterion domain to include elements of contextual performance. In Schmitt N. & Borman W. C. (Eds.), Personnel selection in organizations (pp. 71-98), San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Brislin, R. W. (1970). Back-translation for cross-cultural research. Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1, 185–216. https://doi.org/10.1177/135910457000100301
Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (2002). The hopeful optimist. Psychological Inquiry, 13, 288–290.
Demerouti, E., & Bakker, A. B. (2011). The job demands–resources model: Challenges for future research. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 37, 01-09.
De Waal, J. J., & Pienaar, J. (2013). Towards understanding causality between work engagement and psychological capital. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 39, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v39i2.1113
Estiri, M., Nargesian, A., Dastpish, F., & Sharifi, S. M. (2016). The impact of psychological capital on mental health among Iranian nurses: considering the mediating role of job burnout. SpringerPlus, 5, 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40064-016-3099-z
Fabozzi, F. J., Focardi, S. M., Rachev, S. T., & Arshanapalli, B. G. (2014). The basics of financial econometrics: Tools, concepts, and asset management applications, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
Feuerhahn, N., Kühnel, J., & Kudielka, B. M. (2012). Interaction effects of effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment on emotional exhaustion and job performance. International Journal of Stress Management, 19, 105 - 131. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028338
Gorgievski, M. J., Halbesleben, J. R., & Bakker, A. B. (2011). Expanding the boundaries of psychological resource theories. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 84, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.2010.02015.x
Grover, S. L., Teo, S. T., Pick, D., Roche, M., & Newton, C. J. (2018). Psychological capital as a personal resource in the JD-R model. Personnel Review, 47, 968-984. https://doi.org/10.1108/PR-08-2016-0213
Herbert, M. (2011) An exploration of the relationships between psychological capital (hope, optimism, self-efficacy, resilience), occupational stress, burnout and employee engagement [Doctoral dissertation, Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University]. Retrieved from https://scholar.sun.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10019.1/17829/herbert_exploration_2011.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y Accessed 20 February 2018.
Hobfoll, S. E., Johnson, R. J., Ennis, N., & Jackson, A. P. (2003). Resource loss, resource gain, and emotional outcomes among inner-city women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 632 - 643. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2062
Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6, 1-55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118
Janssens, H., Braeckman, L., Vlerick, P., Van de Ven, B., De Clercq, B., & Clays, E. (2018). The relation between social capital and burnout: a longitudinal study. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 91, 1001-1009. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00420-018-1341-4
Kahn, J. H., Schneider, K. T., Jenkins‐Henkelman, T. M., & Moyle, L. L. (2006). Emotional social support and job burnout among high‐school teachers: is it all due to dispositional affectivity? Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 27, 793-807. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.397
Krasikova, D. V., Lester, P. B., & Harms, P. D. (2015). Effects of psychological capital on mental health and substance abuse. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 22, 280–291. https://doi.org/10.1177/1548051815585853
Laschinger, H. K. S., & Grau, A. L. (2012). The influence of personal dispositional factors and organizational resources on workplace violence, burnout, and health outcomes in new graduate nurses: A cross-sectional study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 49, 282-291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2011.09.004
Laschinger, H. K. S., & Fida, R. (2014). New nurses’ burnout and workplace wellbeing: The influence of authentic leadership and psychological capital. Burnout Research, 1, 19-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.burn.2014.03.002
Lee, R. T., & Ashforth, B. E. (1996). A meta-analytic examination of the correlates of the three dimensions of job burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 123-133.
Leiter, M. P. (1993). Burnout as a developmental process: Consideration of models. In W. B. Schaufeli, C. Maslach, & T. Marek (Eds.), Professional burnout: Recent developments in theory and research (pp. 237-250). Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis.
Llorens, S., Bakker, A. B., Schaufeli, W., & Salonova, M. (2006). Testing the robustness of the job demands– resources model. International Journal of Stress Management, 13, 378–391. https://doi.org/10.1037/1072-5245.14.2.224
Lupşa, D., & Vîrgă, D. (2018). Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ): Analysis of the Romanian adaptation and validation. Psihologia Resurselor Umane, 16, 27-39. doi: https://doi.org/10.24837/pru.2018.1.484
Lupșa, D., Vîrga, D., Maricuțoiu, L. P., & Rusu, A. (2019). Increasing Psychological Capital: A Pre‐Registered Meta‐Analysis of Controlled Interventions. Applied Psychology. 1-51, https://doi.org/10.1111/apps.12219
Luthans, F. (2002). Positive organizational behavior: Developing and managing psychological strengths, The Academy of Management Executive, 16, 57–72.
Luthans, F., Avey, J. B., Avolio, B. J., Norman, S. M., & Combs, G. M. (2006). Psychological capital development: toward a micro-intervention. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 27, 387–393. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.373
Luthans, F., Norman, S. M., & Jensen, S. M. (2007). The value of the psychological capital of immigrant entrepreneurs. International Journal of Business and Globalisation, 1, 161-175. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJBG.2007.014430
Luthans, F., Avey, J. B., & Patera, J. L. (2008). Experimental analysis of a web-based training intervention to develop positive psychological capital. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 7, 209-221. https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.2008.32712618
Luthans, F., Vogelgesang, G. R., & Lester, P. B. (2006). Developing the psychological capital of resiliency. Human Resource Development Review, 5, 25-44. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534484305285335
Luthans, F., & Youssef, C. M. (2004). Human, social, and now positive psychological capital management: Investing in people for competitive advantage. Organizational Dynamics, 33, 143–160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orgdyn.2004.01.003
Luthans, F., Youssef, C. M., & Avolio, B. J. (2007). Psychological capital: Developing the human competitive edge. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Luthans, F., Youssef, C. M., Sweetman, D. S., & Harms, P. D. (2013). Meeting the leadership challenge of employee well-being through relationship PsyCap and health PsyCap. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 20, 118–133. https://doi.org/10.1177/1548051812465893
Mäkikangas, A., Kinnunen, U., & Feldt, T. (2004). Self-esteem, dispositional optimism, and health: Evidence from cross-lagged data on employees. Journal of Research in Personality, 38, 556-575. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2004.02.001
Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W. B., & Leiter, M. P. (2001). Job burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 397-422. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.397
Maudgalya, T., Wallace, S., Daraiseh, N., & Salem, S. (2006). Workplace stress factors and ‘burnout’among information technology professionals: A systematic review. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 7, 285-297. https://doi.org/10.1080/14639220500090638
Messersmith, J. (2007). Managing work‐life conflict among information technology workers. Human Resource Management, 46, 429-451. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.20172
Meyers, M. C., & van Woerkom, M. (2017). Effects of a strength’s intervention on general and work-related well-being: The mediating role of positive affect. Journal of Happiness Studies, 18, 671-689. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-016-9745-x
Muthén L. K, & Muthén, B. O. (2012). Mplus User's Guide, Seventh Edition, Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
Newman, A., Ucbasaran, D., Zhu, F. E. I., & Hirst, G. (2014). Psychological capital: A review and synthesis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35, S120-S138. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.1916
Norman, S. M., Avey, J. B., Nimnicht, J. L., & Graber Pigeon, N. (2010). The interactive effects of psychological capital and organizational identity on employee organizational citizenship and deviance behaviors. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 17, 380–391. https://doi.org/10.1177/1548051809353764
Oprea, B. T., Barzin, L., Vîrgă, D., Iliescu, D., & Rusu, A. (2019). Effectiveness of job crafting interventions: a meta-analysis and utility analysis. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2019.1646728
Peterson, S. J., Luthans, F., Avolio, B. J., Walumbwa, F. O., & Zhang, Z. (2011) Psychological capital and employee performance: A latent growth modeling approach. Personnel Psychology, 64, 427-450. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2011.01215.x
Podsakoff, N. P., LePine, J. A., & LePine, M. A. (2007). Differential challenge stressor-hindrance stressor relationships with job attitudes, turnover intentions, turnover, and withdrawal behavior: a meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 438-454. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.92.2.438
Rabenu, E., Yaniv, E., & Elizur, D. (2017). The relationship between psychological capital, coping with stress, well-being, and performance. Current Psychology, 36, 875-887. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-016-9477-4
Rudman, A., & Gustavsson, J. P. (2011). Early-career burnout among new graduate nurses: a prospective observational study of intra-individual change trajectories. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 48, 292-306. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2010.07.012
Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement: A multi‐sample study. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 25, 293-315. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.248
Schaufeli, W. B., Leiter, M. P., Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. E. (1996). Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey. Manual. Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto.
Schaufeli, W. B., & Taris, T. W. (2014). A critical review of the job Demands-resources model: Implications for improving work and health. In Bauer G. F. & Hämmig O. (Eds.), Bridging occupational, organizational and public health (pp. 43–68), Amsterdam: Springer.
Schoorman, F. D., & Mayer, R. C. (2008). The value of common perspectives in self-reported appraisals: You get what you ask for. Organizational Research Methods, 11, 148-159. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428107307168
Seligman, M. E. (1998). What is the good life? APA monitor, 29, 1-3.
Simons, J. C., & Buitendach, J. H. (2013). Psychological capital, work engagement and organizational commitment amongst call center employees in South Africa. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 39, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v39i2.1071
Stajkovic, A. D., & Luthans, F. (1998). Self-efficacy and work-related performance: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 240–261. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.124.2.240
Snyder, C.R. (2000). Handbook of hope. San Diego: Academic Press.
Snyder, C. R., Harris, C., Anderson, J. R., Holleran, S. A., Irving, L. M., Sigmon, S. T., Yoshinobu, L., Gibb, L., Langelle, C., & Harney, P. (1991). The will and the ways: Development and validation of an individual differences measure of hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 570-585. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-35220.127.116.110
Sulea, C., Vîrgă, D., Maricuțoiu, L. P., Schaufeli, W., Zaborilă Dumitru, C., & Sava, F. A. (2012). Work engagement as mediator between job characteristics and positive and negative extra-role behaviours. Career Development International, 17, 188–207. https://doi.org/10.1108/13620431211241054
Swider, B. W., & Zimmerman, R. D. (2010). Born to burnout: A meta-analytic path model of personality, job burnout, and work outcomes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76, 487-506. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2010.01.003
Taris, T. W. (2006). Is there a relationship between burnout and objective performance? A critical review of 16 studies. Work & Stress, 20, 316-334. https://doi.org/10.1080/02678370601065893
Taris, T.W., Leisink, P.L.M., & Schaufeli, W.B. (2017). Applying Occupational Health Theories to Educator Stress: Contribution of the Job Demands-Resources Model. In: McIntyre T., McIntyre S., Francis D. (Eds), Educator Stress. Aligning Perspectives on Health, Safety and Well-Being (pp. 237-259), Cham: Springer.
Vîrgă, D., Baciu, E. L., Lazăr, T. A., & Lupșa, D. (2020). Psychological Capital Protects Social Workers from Burnout and Secondary Traumatic Stress. Sustainability, 12, 2246-2262.
Vîrgă, D., & Iliescu, D. (2017). The well-being of Romanian workers in Spain: antecedents and moderators. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 26, 149-159. https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2016.1225728
Vîrgă, D. M., & Paveloni, A. (2015). Psychological capital and well-being: the moderating role of psychological detachment from work. Psihologia Resurselor Umane, 13 (1), 53-62.
Vîrgă, D., Schaufeli, W. B., Taris, T. W., van Beek, I., & Sulea, C. (2019). Attachment styles and employee performance: The mediating role of burnout. The Journal of Psychology, 153, 383-401. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223980.2018.1542375
Van de Ven, B., de Jonge, J., & Vlerick, P. (2014). Testing the triple‐match principle in the technology sector: A two‐wave longitudinal panel study. Applied Psychology, 63, 300-325. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2012.00523.x
Van de Ven, B., & Vlerick, P. (2013). Testing the triple-match principle among technology employees. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 22, 658-669. https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2012.682359
Van de Ven, B., Vlerick, P., & de Jonge, J. (2008). The interplay of job demands, job resources and cognitive outcomes in informatics. Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, 24, 375-382. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.1192
Van Wingerden, J., Derks, D., & Bakker, A. B. (2017). The impact of personal resources and job crafting interventions on work engagement and performance. Human Resource Management, 56, 51-67. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.21758
Ware, J. E., Jr. (1999). SF-36 Health Survey. In Maruish, M. E. (Ed.), The use of psychological testing for treatment planning and outcomes assessment (pp. 1227-1246), Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2007). The role of personal resources in the Job Demands-Resources model. International Journal of Stress Management, 14, 121–141. https://doi.org/10.1037/1072-5245.14.2.121
Youssef‐Morgan, C. M., & Luthans, F. (2015). Psychological capital and well‐being. Stress and Health, 31, 180-188. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.2623